U.S. Sen. David Vitter, who is also running for governor of Louisiana, said he has not ruled out accepting Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, but he said he would "put clear parameters on whether we would even consider moving in that direction."

Vitter said he is worried about the additional cost to the state--expansion would require a state match in the next few years--and the impact that may have on undedicated areas of the budget, such as higher education.

"Higher ed in particular has got crowded out of state spending mostly because of rising healthcare costs," Vitter said. "Whatever we do with regard to this [Medicaid expansion], we need to know that it's not going to lead to more of the same."

Vitter said Gov. Bobby Jindal has placed state lawmakers into a "small constrained box," preventing them from making budgetary decisions that don't meet his approval.

"I would put everything on the table, and so we'd have a lot more room and a lot more flexibility, both in terms of spending reform--that he's not leading--and tax reform--that's he's not leading," Vitter said.